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Vision Therapy Research

We have compiled a wealth of information on our research page that includes successful studies and trials of vision therapy in treating a variety of conditions.

The Effectiveness of Vision Therapy

Vision Therapy & Learning Problems




Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)


Juvenile Delinquency



Further Research

Scholarly References

Visual-Spatial Disorders

  • Bolding MS, Lahti AC, Gawne TJ, Hopkins KB, Gurler D, Gamlin PD. Ocular convergence deficits in schizophrenia. Front Psychiatry. 2012;3:86.
  • Chok JT, Reed DD, Kennedy A, Bird FL. A single-case experimental analysis of the effects of ambient prism lenses for an adolescent with developmental disabilities. Behav Anal Pract. 2010;3(2):42–51.
  • Chen Y, Bidwell LC, Holzman PS. Visual motion integration in schizophrenia patients, their first-degree relatives, and patients with bipolar disorder. Schizophr Res. 2005 May 1;74(2–3):271–81.
  • Tek C, Gold J, Blaxton T, Wilk C, McMahon RP, Buchanan RW. Visual perceptual and working memory impairments in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;59(2):146–53.
  • Kaplan M, Edelson SM, Seip JA. Behavioral changes in autistic individuals as a result of wearing ambient transitional prism lenses. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 1998;29(1):65–76.
  • Kaplan M, Carmody DP, Gaydos A. Postural orientation modifications in autism in response to ambient lenses. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 1996;27(2):81–91.

Strabismus Surgery | References


  • Birnbaum MH, Koslowe K, Sanet R. Success in amblyopia therapy as a function of age: a literature review. Am J Optom Phys Opt. 1977; 54:269-275.
  • Cooper J, Ciuffreda K, Kruger P. Stimulus and Response AC/A Ratios in Intermittent Exotropia of the Divergence Excess Type. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 66(6): 398-904, 1982.
  • Cooper J, Feldman JM, Selenow A, Fair R, Bucciero F, MacDonald D, Levy M. Reduction of Asthenopia Following Accommodative Facility Training. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 64, 30-436, 1987.
  • Cooper J, Burns C, Cotter S, Daum KM, Griffin JR, Scheiman M. Optometric Clinical Guideline: Care of the patient with accommodative or vergence dysfunction. Am. Optom. Ass. 1998.
  • Cooper J, Ciuffreda KJ, Carniglia PE, Zinn KM, Tannen B. Orthoptic Treatment and Eye Movement Recordings in Guillain-Barreê Syndrome. A case report. Neuro-ophthalmology 15(5):249-256, 1995.
  • Cooper J, Duckman R. Convergence Insufficiency: Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 49(6):, 1978.
  • Cooper J, Feldman J. Operant Conditioning of Fusional Convergence Ranges Using Random Dot Stereograms. American Journal of Optometry & Physiological Optics, 57(4): 205-213, 1980.
  • Cooper J, Feldman J. Panoramic Viewing, Visual Acuity of the Deviating Eye and Anomalous Retinal Correspondence in the Intermittent Exotropia of the Divergence Excess Type. American Journal of Optometry & Psychological Optics, 56(7): 422-429, 1979.
  • Cooper J, Medow N, Dibble C. Mortality Rates in Strabismic Surgery. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 53(5): 391-395, 1982.
  • Cooper J, Medow N. Intermittent Exotropia of the Divergence Excess Type: Basic and Divergence Excess Type (Major Review). Bin Vis Eye Mus Surg Qtly 8:187-222, 1993.
  • Cooper J, Selenow A, Ciuffreda J, Feldman J, Faverty J, Hokoda S. Reduction of Asthenopia in Patients with Convergence Insufficiency Following Fusional Vergence Training. Am J Opt Physl Opt, 60: 982-989,1983.
  • Cooper J. “Diagnosis and Remediation of Accommodative Anomalies”, Chapter in Clinical Diagnosis of Optometric Problem Ed: John Amos Butterworth Publications, 1987.
  • Cooper J. A Case Report: Treatment of a Decompensating Esotropia Who Had Diplopia and Vertex Headaches. Journal of American Optometric Association, 48(12): 1557-1558, 1977.
  • Cooper J. Intermittent Exotropia of the Divergence Excess Type. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 48(10): 1251-1273, 1977.
  • Cooper J. Orthoptic Treatment of Vertical Deviations. J Amer Optom Ass. 59 (6): 463-468, 1988.
  • Cooper J. Review of Computerized Orthoptics with Specific Regard to Convergence Insufficiency. Am. J. of Optom. and Phys. Optics. 65(6): 455-463, 1988.
  • Cooper, J. Clinical Implications of Vergence Adaptation. Opt Vis Sci, 69 (4): 300-307, 1992.
  • Cotter S. Conventional therapy for amblyopia. Probl Optom. 1991; 3:312-330.
  • Feldman J, Cooper J, Reinstein F, Swiatoca J. Asthenopia Induced by Computer-Generated Fusional Vergence Targets. Opt Vis Sci, 69: 710-716, 1992.
  • Flax N, Duckman RH. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. J Am Optom Ass 1978; 49:1353-1361.
  • Flom NC. The prognosis in strabismus. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom. 1958; 35:509-514.
  • Garcia RP. Efficacy of Vision Therapy in amblyopia: a literature review. Am J Optom Phys Opt 1987; 64:393-404.
  • Ludlam WM. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Am J Optome Arch Am Acad of Optom.
  • 1961; 38:369-388
  • Ludlam W, Kleinman B. The long range results of orthoptic treatment in strabismus. Am J Optom Phy Opt. 1965; 42(11); 647-684.
  • North RV, Henson BD. Effects of orthoptics upon the ability of patients to adapt to prism induced heterophoria. Am J Optom Phys Opt. 1982; 59: 983-986.
  • Scheiman M, Ciner e. Surgical success rates in acquired, comitant, partially accommodative and non-accommodative esotropia. J Am Optom Ass 1987; 58:556-561.
  • Wick B. Vision Therapy of small angle esotropia. Am J Optom Physiolk Opt. 1974; 51(7); 490-496.
  • Wick B, Cook D. management of anomalous correspondence: efficacy of therapy. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987; 64:405-410.
  • Ziegler D, Huff D. Rouse MW. Success in strabismus therapy: a literature review. J Am Opt Ass. 1982; 53:979-983.
  • Long-term surgical outcomes for large-angle, infantile esotropia. Wan, Chiu, Shah, Hunter. JAAO , March 2018
  • A Case of Endophthalmitis After Bilateral Medial Rectus Recession. Sagar B. Patel, MD; Nikitha Reddy, BS; Robert N. Hogan, MD, PhD; Jennifer H. Cao, MD.Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Volume 54, June 2017
  • Straightening the Eyes Doesn’t Rebalance the Brain. Zhou, Wang, et. Al. Front. Hum. Neurosci., 12 September 2017
  • Long-term Differences in Language and Cognitive Function After Childhood Exposure to Anesthesia PEDIATRICS Vol. 130 No. 3 September 1, 2012.
  • Hensch, The New York Academy of Sciences September 24, 2007 Plasticity of Sensory Systems: Critical Periods Re-Examined

Web Articles and Studies:

4 Circles Reference List

  • Optometric Management of Nearpoint Vision Disorders
    • Martin H. Birnbaum
    • Butterworth-Heinemann 1993
  • Accommodation, Nearwork and Myopia
    • Edith Ong, OD, PhD and Kenneth J, Ciuffreda, OD, PhD
    • Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc. 1997
  • Behavioral Aspects of Vision Care
    • Myopia Control
    • Optometric Extension Program Volume 39/Number 3
    • Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc. 1998
  • Bibliography of Near Lenses & Vision Training Research
    • Includes Supplements on Eye Movements, Juvenile Delinquency and Vision & Traumatic (Acquired) Brain Injury
    • Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc. 1998
    • Ocular Accommodation, Convergence, and Fixation Disparity
  • A Manual of Clinical Analysis
    • David A. Goss
    • Butterworth-Heinemann 1995
  • Lens Power in Action
    • Robert A. Kraskin, OD
    • Reformatted and Edited by Paul Harris, OD; Gregory Kitchener, OD
    • Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc. 2003
  • Selected Works or Nathan Flax
    • Case Analysis, Prescribing and Treatment
    • Vision & Learning
    • Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc. 2007
  • Vision Therapy
    • Tools of Behavioral Vision Care
    • Lenses, Occluders and Filters
    • Optometric Extension Program Volume 38/ Number 1
    • Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc.
  • Vision Therapy
    • Tools of Behavioral Vision Care
    • Prisms
    • Optometric Extension Program Volume 37/ Number 4
    • Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc. 1996

Vision Enhancement Books

  • Take Off your Glasses and See by Jacob Liberman
  • Light: Medicine of the Future by Jacob Liberman
  • Greater Vision by Marc Grossman
  • Beyond 2020 Vision by Roberto Kaplan
  • The Power Behind Your Eyes by Roberto Kaplan
  • Conscious Seeing by Roberto Kaplan
  • Energetic Eye Healing by Roberto Kaplan and Vistara Haiduk
  • Eye Yoga by Jane Rigney Battenberg and Martha M. Rigney

There are many more references, but here are just a few:

  • Fixing My Gaze-Susan Barry
  • Crossed and Lazy Eyes- Pilar Vergara
  • Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy- Leonard Press
  • Visual Rehabilitation- Suter and Harvey
  • User’s Guide to the Brain- Ratey
  • The Brain that Changes Itself- Norman Doidge
  • The Ghost in my Brain- Clark Elliott
  • The Brain’s Sense of Movement- Alain Berthoz

References on Nystagmus


TBI & Syntonics References

  • Anders J. The potential of light therapy for central nervous system injury and disease. Photomed Laser Surg 2009:27:379–80.
  • Spitler HR. The syntonic principle. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Science Press Printing Company, 1941.
  • Wallace L. The theory and practice of syntonic phototherapy: A review. Optom Vis Dev 2009:40(2):73-81.
  • Gottlieb RL. Syntonic phototherapy: Mechanisms for low light therapy. Proc of SPIE 2010:7552:1–9.
  • Wallace L. Syntonics: Optometric color therapy for the treatment of acquired brain Injuries. Journal of Optometric Phototherapy 2001:10-13.
  • Pulaski JJ. The Alpha Omega Pupil. Journal of Optometric Phototherapy 2010:15–20.
  • Ciuffreda K, Joshi NR. Light on the pupil and concussion: A perspective. Vision Dev and Rehab 2017: 3(3):194-6.
  • Clark J, Hasselfeld K, Bigsby K, Divine J. Colored glasses to mitigate photophobia symptoms posttraumatic brain injury. J Athl Train 2017:52(8):725-29.
  • Spitler HR. The Syntonic Principle. The College of Syntonic Optometry, Pueldo, Colorado. 1941.
  • The Blue Book. Bloomsberg, PA:College of Syntonic Optometry Library, 1995.
  • Liberman J. Light, Medicine of the Future. Rochesters, VT: Bear & Co.; 1991.
  • Doidge N. The Brain’s Way of Healing. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 2015.
  • Raymond L. Gottlieb, Larry B. Wallace. Syntonic Phototherapy. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2010;28(4):449-52.
  • Wallace L. The Theory and Practice of Syntonic Phototherapy: A Review. Optom Vis Dev. 2009;40(2):73-81.
  • Gottlieb RL. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Visual Fields and Light Therapy. Journal of Optometric Phototherapy. April 2004;7-11.
  • Gottlieb RL. Functional Visual Fields Following Brain Injury. Journal of Optometric Phototherapy. March 2005;37-45.
  • Gottlieb RL, Wallace L. Syntonic Phototherapy. Journal Behav Optom. 2001;12(2):31-8.
  • Gottlieb RL. Syntonic Phototherapy: Mechanisms for Low Light Therapy. Proc, SPIE 7552. 2010; 1–9.
  • Liberman J. The Effects of Syntonic Colored Light Stimulation on Certain Visual and Cognitive Functions. J. Optometric Vis. Dev. 1986; 17:4-14.
  • Wurtman RJ. The Effects of Light on the Human Body. Scientific American. 1975;233:68-80.
  • Matynia A. Blurring the Boundaries of Vision: Novel Functions of Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells. Journal of Experimental Neuroscience 2013;7: 43–50.
  • Brennan R, Jan JE and Lyons CJ. Light, dark, and melatonin: emerging evidence for the importance of melatonin in ocular physiology. Eye. 2007; 21: 901-908.
  • Bonmarti-Carrion, Arguelles-Prieto, Martinez-Madrid et al. Protecting the Melatonin Rhythm through Circadian Healthy Light Exposure. Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15:23448-23500.
  • Mendoza J., and Challet, E. Brain clocks: From the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei to a Cerebral Network. Neuroscientist. 2009; 15:477–88.
  • Butts, C, The Alpha-Omega Pupil, CSOJ, p7, Mar 1990.
  • Butts, C, Introduction to Campimetry, CSOJ, p4-5, Mar 1989.
  • Pulaski, J, The Alpha Omega Pupil: Clinical Considerations, Testing and recording Standardization, CSOJ, p 15-16, 20, Mar 2010.
  • Wallace, Larry, Color Fields in Syntonics, CSOJ, 2002.

Pulsed magnetic field therapy for concussions and TBI healing 2020

  1. Streit A, Watson B, Granata J, et al. Effect on Clinical Outcome and Growth Factor Synthesis With Adjunctive Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields for Fifth Metatarsal Nonunion Fracture: A Double-Blind Randomized Study. Foot Ankle Int. 2016;37(9):919-923. doi:10.1177/1071100716652621
  2. Chistyakov A, Hafner H, Soustiel J, Trubnik M, Levy G, Feinsod M. Dissociation of somatosensory and motor evoked potentials in non-comatose patients after head injury. Clin Neurophysiol. 1999;110(6):1080-1089. doi:10.1016/s1388-2457(99)00029-2
  3. Rasouli J, Lekhraj R, White NM, et al. Attenuation of interleukin-1beta by pulsed electromagnetic fields after traumatic brain injury. Neuroscience Letters. June 2012:4-8. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2012.03.089
  4. Leung A, Fallah A, Shukla S, et al. rTMS in Alleviating Mild TBI Related Headaches–A Case Series. Pain Physician. 2016;19(2):E347-54.
  5. Reti I, Schwarz N, Bower A, Tibbs M, Rao V. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: A potential new treatment for depression associated with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2015;29(7-8):789-797. doi:10.3109/02699052.2015.1009168
  6. Castel-Lacanal E, Tarri M, Loubinoux I, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in brain injury. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2014;33(2):83-87. doi:10.1016/j.annfar.2013.11.006
  7. Louise-Bender P, Rosenow J, Lewis G, et al. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-associated neurobehavioral gains during coma recovery. Brain Stimul. 2009;2(1):22-35. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2008.09.004
  8. Afifi L, Jarrett R, Valero-Cabré A. Benefit of multiple sessions of perilesional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for an effective rehabilitation of visuospatial function. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;37(3):441-454. doi:10.1111/ejn.12055
  9. Nielson D, McKnight C, Patel R, Kalnin A, Mysiw W. Preliminary guidelines for safe and effective use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(4 Suppl):S138-44. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.010
  10. Herrold A, Kletzel S, Harton B, Chambers R, Jordan N, Pape T. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: potential treatment for co-occurring alcohol, traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorders. Neural Regen Res. 2014;9(19):1712-1730. doi:10.4103/1673-5374.143408

Incidence of visual & binocular problems amongst TBI patients.

  1. Mark S. Rosner, Debby L. Feinberg, Jennifer E. Doble & Arthur J. Rosner (2016): Treatment of vertical heterophoria ameliorates persistent post-concussive symptoms: A retrospective analysis utilizing a multi-faceted assessment battery, Brain Injury, DOI: 10.3109/02699052.2015.1113564
  2. Armstrong RA. 2018. Vision problems associated with traumatic brain injury. Clinical and Experimental Optometry; 2018; Jan:1-11.
  3. Matheron E, Kapoula Z. Incidence of vertical phoria on postural control during binocular vision: what perspective for prevention to nonspecific chronic pain management?
    Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol. 2015 Spring;4(1):27-30. PMID: 25861672; PMCID: PMC4389295.
  4. Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N, Rutner D, Suchoff IB, Han ME, Craig S. Occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis. Optometry-Journal of the American Optometric Association. 2007 Apr 1;78(4):155-61.